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Hate Crimes in Poland – Legal and Criminological Perspective

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24040/sap.2021.8.2-3.147-159

Citácia: NARODOWSKA, J. - DUDA, M. 2021. Hate Crimes in Poland – Legal and Criminological Perspective. In Štát a právo [online]. 2021, vol. 8, no. 2-3, pp. 147-159 [cit. dátum citovania]. ISSN 2644-643X. Available at: https://doi.org/10.24040/sap.2021.8.2-3.147-159 

Abstrakt: The aim of the study is to discuss the principles of criminal liability for hate crimes penalized under the Polish Penal Code and to present the criminological aspects of this phenomenon in Poland. In the first (legal) part, three crimes of extremist nature are characterized and Polish solutions in this regard are compared with the provisions of the Slovak Penal Code. In addition, the most important conclusions from the statistical analysis of the Ministry of Justice data for the years 2008-2017 are presented. In the second part (criminological) the authors indicated the reasons of committing hate crimes. Furthermore a description of the phenomenon based on data provided by the National Police Headquarters and the National Public Prosecutor’s Office was presented, as well as possibilities of counteracting extremist crime were discussed

Kľúčové slová: Hate crimes, extremism, criminal liability, causes, manifestations, counteraction

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